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What is Voltage Stabilizer/Regulator & How Does It Work?


What is Voltage Stabilizer/Regulator?

A voltage stabilizer/regulator is an electrical product which is used to feed constant voltage current to electrical loading equipments,  protecting them from damage because of voltage fluctuations and erratic power supply. Basically, it works on the same principle just like a transformer, so the input current is linked to primary winding and output current is obtained by secondary winding.

If there is a sudden and unexpected drop in the incoming voltage, it activates the SCR modules or servo motor to add to more current to the secondary winding hence increasing or compensating for the drop in voltage. If there is a boost in the incoming voltage, the opposite happens, the voltage in the output side becomes constant.

How do voltage stabilizers actually work?

In a voltage stabilizer/regulator, voltage correction from over and under voltage condition is carried out by two vital operations, called boost and buck operations. These operations can either be done manually or automatically through modern electronic circuit based systems. When there is a situation of under voltage then, boost operation boosts the voltage to the required levels whereas buck operation will reduce the voltage level when the situation is opposite.

The idea of voltage stabilization or the entire concept of a voltage stabilizer involves addition or subtraction of the voltage to and from the mains power supply. For this, the voltage stabilizer uses a transformer like a setup that is connected in various configurations and is armed with switching relays.

Many stabilizers/regulators have a transformer with taps on winding type configuration to deliver different voltage corrections while servo stabilizers use a thing called auto transformer which can handle the wide range of voltage related issues.

Let us now understand the boosting configuration where the polarity for the secondary winding is oriented in a way that its voltage is directly included with the main or primary voltage. So in the event of under voltage condition, the transformer is switched because of the relays or solid state switches in a way that additional volts are appended added to the input voltage. Therefore compensating for the loss of voltage.

In bucking configuration the polarity of the secondary coil is adjusted in a manner that it subtracts the voltage coming from the mains. Switching circuit here then shifts the connection to match the load in this configuration.

Then there comes the two-stage voltage stabilizer/regulator. It uses two relays to deliver constant AC supply into the load during over voltage conditions and under voltage conditions. It does so by switching the relays, buck and boost operations as per the requirement.

This is the basic working model of every type of voltage stabilizer that is in use today. It must be noted that the underlying principle for them is almost same. Utilizing the permutation and combination of this principle the voltage stabilizers are of various types namely servo controlled and static voltage type. Discussing them in detail here is beyond the scope of current article. Please note that despite having the same underlying principle these different type of stabilizers/regulators differ in functionalities.